Media Literacy


Presenter: —————–

Date: xx/xx/2023

Media Literacy

Media Literacy: agenda

  1. Introduction to Media Literacy 
  2. Credible digital information
  3. Dealing with misinformation

01 Introduction to media literacy

What is media literacy? ‘Information and knowledge are not free from bias or inherent values.’ that is why we need: Media literacy is the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, create and act on using all forms of communication. Media literacy includes the ability to recognize messages in various forms, understand how messages can affect people differently and be thoughtful about what content and media to share.

Media literacy can help people be effective and informed consumers and creators of media content in a global society.

02 Credible digital information

Learning objective: You will be able to identify and evaluate the credibility of digital sources (including verifying sources, identifying bias, misinformation, manipulated media and evaluating searches).

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

What makes something or someone credible?

A credible source of information is one (an expert) that provides accurate information based on sound evidence. However, sources often have strengths and weaknesses. This is why it’s helpful to learn different strategies for evaluating information, particularly online information found through social media and web searches.

Digital media literacy skills and techniques can help you know how to critically evaluate information and sources for potential bias or misinformation. 

People turn to a variety of search engines and social media platforms to find information on the internet. These each uses an algorithm—a set of computer-programmed instructions to complete a task—to return unique results based on a combination of factors such as your geographic location, other searches on similar topics, your own past searches, and the level of detail in your search query.

 These algorithms are complex and return thousands or millions of results in seconds (or fractions of a second).

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Best practices

 Top results in a web search should be assessed for credibility as some may be paid for by companies or other organizations to promote their products or services. Words such as ‘Ad’ or ‘Sponsored Results’ normally appear at the top of such pages. A content may look and sound legitimate, but that doesn’t necessarily mean it is credible or accurate. Sometimes, information sources are trying to spread disinformation or misinformation. When in doubt, look for other sources to corroborate the claim before sharing it out.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)


  • Stop: Before you share, ask yourself whether you know the information source. If you aren’t sure, stop. Don’t repost or share the information.
  • Investigate the source: ask what the source knows about a topic (expertise) and how they learned that information and why they want you to believe that information (motive)
  • Find better coverage: if you can’t tell a source is credible, conduct a web search to see what other sources are saying
  • Trace: claims, quotes, clippings to the original source

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Manipulated images and videos

  • There are varying degrees of deception within manipulated images and videos:
  • Cheap fakes are manipulation of digital content with simple editing tools such as photoshop to add or delete objects within an image or other software to change audio or video clips.
  • Deepfakes include manipulation of digital content through advanced editing tools using artificial intelligence

02 Credible digital information (cont.)


02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Five pillars for verifying visual information


Is this the original content source?


 Who captured or created this content?


When was the content captured or created?


Where was this content captured or created?


Why was the content captured or created?

How can you tell if you are viewing a deepfake?


anything odd about their eyes, hair or skin?


Does the speaker’s voice not match their appearance?


If the person is wearing glasses, do glasses accurately reflect light? Are there areas where shadows seem misplaced or are missing?

02 Credible digital information (cont.)


Revers Image Search

Sometimes you may want to check the original source of an image file. One way to do that is to conduct a reverse image search. Just as you may search for other types of online media, you can also search for image files using a search engine.


  1. Copy the web address of the photo or other image file you want to search. You can often do this by right-clicking the image and selecting Copy Image Address.
  2. Open a search engine in your web browser.
  3. You may see several icons in the search bar including a magnifying glass, a camera, or even a microphone.
  4. Click the icon shaped like a camera and follow the prompts. You will paste the image address here to conduct the search.
  5. The image search engine results will give you information about where that image has been used across the web in the past.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Misinformation vs. Disinformation

Misinformation is content that is false or misleading.

Disinformation is false or misleading information created or shared with malicious intent to cause harm, manipulate or mislead an individual, group or organization.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Confirmation bias

 Confirmation bias is the tendency we have to consume information in a way that supports our existing beliefs. It can influence how we find, interpret, share, and recall information. When credible information challenges our existing beliefs, it is more difficult to accept that information as true. Because of this, confirmation bias can influence the spread of disinformation and misinformation.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

How do we combat confirmation bias?

The first step is awareness. Once you are aware of potential confirmation bias, you can begin to work against it. The next step is to actively engage with diverse perspectives and information from a wide variety of credible sources. Think objectively about all content and information sources, regardless of your personal opinions. This will help you to pause and think about the credibility and reliability of a source before sharing it with others.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Echo chambers

An echo chamber is a setting in which an individual only interacts with content or information that reflects and reinforces their own opinions. Echo chambers are influenced by confirmation bias and aided by algorithms that deliver content recommendations based on previous media consumption. Echo chambers can distort someone’s perspective to the point that they are unable or find it difficult to consider different viewpoints and thoughtfully discuss complicated issues. They can also reinforce misinformation that supports one’s deeply held beliefs. Echo chambers happen anywhere people exchange information. However, they are common online because it is easy to find like-minded people and perspectives with search engines and social media tools, which are designed to facilitate quick results based on user preferences.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

How do you know if you are part of an echo chamber?

  •  Does the community or group that you participate in only consider one perspective?
  • Is that perspective supported by evidence from credible sources or by assumptions and rumors?
  • Are other perspectives disputed without factual support? 

Avoid becoming part of an echo chamber by doing the following:

  •  Consciously remaining open-minded
  • Actively engaging with diverse perspectives and information from a wide variety of credible sources
  • Checking multiple news outlets for complete information
  • Being aware of confirmation bias

02 Credible digital information (cont.)


Echo Chamber

Personal reflection

  1.  What areas of your online identity might lead to being part of an echo chamber?
  2. How might you counteract this?

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Types of deceptive information

Seven common types of deceptive online information from misinformation to disinformation:

  1. Satire
  2. False connection
  3. Misleading content
  4. Imposter content
  5. False context
  6. Manipulated content
  7. Fabricated content

02 Credible digital information (cont.)


Satire is using a comedic point of view to comment on current events, human nature or other social topics. Satire can be a healthy part of communication, but out of context, it can be used to mislead.

False connection

also known as clickbait, this type of deceptive information uses sensational images or language to entice individuals to click on an article, subscribe or follow a page or profile but they do not match the content.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Misleading content

Content that is true but used in a misleading way.

Imposter content

False or misleading content that is designed to look as if it is from a reputable organization or source but is actually not.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

False context

True content that is shared with false contextual information.

Manipulated content

True content, including imagery, that is altered to be misleading.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Fabricated content

Content that is 100% fake or false. In the next section, you will learn about deepfakes.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

How do I mark a Facebook post as false news?

  1. Click the three horizontal dots next to the post you’d like to mark as false.
  2. Click Find support or report post.
  3. Click False Information, then click Next.
  4. Click Done.

Learn more about why you may be asked to give feedback about something on Facebook.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Online advertising

Online advertising uses a variety of strategies to get people to click on advertisements or engage with products and services. Some of these strategies include clickbait headlines, endorsements and sponsored posts. You can take control of the ads you see by adjusting your ad preferences.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)


Clickbait uses sensationalized or emotive headlines and images to draw your attention and entice you to click on content. It can be found on blogs or social media, but legitimate news sources use it.

Signs of a clickbait

You Won’t Believe What ….

12 Amazing Facts! or 19 Unbelievable …

Titles that tell you how to feel or think rather than letting you make your own decisions

02 Credible digital information (cont.)


Endorsements are when companies pay people to advertise their products on their own social media profiles through sponsored posts.

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Sponsored content

Sponsored content is an advertisement that is made to look like an impartial information source or news article. Online news sites publish sponsored content, and it is also present on social media and on influencers’ accounts. You can adjust your Ad preferences on social media: Ad preferences on Facebook and Ad preferences on Instagram

02 Credible digital information (cont.)

Additional resources to learn more

Website privacy policies

  • Facebook Data Policy
  • Facebook Data Processing
  • Instagram Data Policies
  • WhatsApp Privacy Page

02 Credible digital information (cont.)


Determining credibility

  1. Does this content come from a credible or reliable source? How do you know? Did you use any of the evaluation strategies you learned in this module?
  2. Does this content evoke any emotional reactions? Do you think the content creator intended for that type of reaction?
  3. Would you share this content with others? Why or why not?

03 Dealing with misinformation

Learning objective: You will be able to raise awareness and/or report suspected misinformation.

03 Dealing with misinformation (cont.)

Counteracting disinformation and misinformation

Disinformation and misinformation can play to people’s emotions through several strategies that can make it difficult to tell the difference between fact and opinion: Attacks Flattery or deceptively inclusive language Presenting evidence to make disinformation sound more believable, but using it out of context Telling personal stories Be an emotional skeptic. When information plays to your emotions or gives you a strong emotional reaction, be wary. Before reacting, pause and think about what the information might be trying to do. Use media literacy techniques to evaluate that information source.

03 Dealing with misinformation (cont.)

How Facebook counteracts misinformation

01. Remove

Removes any content that violates Facebook’s community standards

02. Reduce

Reduces the impact of false or misleading content by demoting it in News Feed or search results.

03. Inform

Uses independent fact-checkers to review content and provides notifications and warning labels for questionable content.

03 Dealing with misinformation (cont.)

Talking about misinformation

Develop your media literacy skills, help others develop it and stop the spread of misinformation. But talking about misinformation can be challenging, especially with family and friends.

If a friend or family member is sharing misinformation

  • Do your own fact-checking first.
  • Private message over comment: a public correction can help educate others, but it can be upsetting to the poster.
  • Be empathetic when engaging with the poster and provide credible evidence to support your position. Otherwise, you risk alienating the person even further.
  • Avoid escalation as it can be hard for people to accept when they are wrong.
  • Be a resource for others by using factual information and credible sources for online content.

03 Dealing with misinformation (cont.)

Correcting the record

Even when you are diligent with critically evaluating sources, you might still end up sharing misinformation. Here are some strategies to help correct the record:

Make a “truth sandwich.” state the truth first and then the error—only to provide context—and then reinforce the truth. People tend to remember repeated information.

Be proactive. If you encounter misinformation on social media, use a platform’s reporting tools to report the post or profile.

Share credible sources. Provide links to resources with credible and reliable information about the topic.

03 Dealing with misinformation (cont.)

correcting the record: recap


Think about something you have shared recently online. Did you verify it or pause to think about its potential impact before sharing?

03 Dealing with misinformation (cont.)

Additional resources for dealing with misinformation

Africa Check | Sorting fact from fiction HaqCheck (may not be internationally certified) Ethiopia Check (may not be internationally certified)


  • About Facebook’s Third-Party Fact-Checking Program
  • International Fact-Checking Network from Poynter (IFCN)
  • PolitiFact
  • Projects – CredCatalog

Other resources

  • How to Stamp Out False News
  • Fight COVID-19 Misinformation
  • PEN America’s Guide on COVID-19 and Disinformation
  • Too much information: a public guide to navigating the infodemic – First Draft
  • How to speak up without starting a showdown
  • Taking Action Against Misinformation Across
  • Facebook Apps

Media Literacy : Assesments

THANK YOU !,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,